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Low-noise current and charge sensing circuits are pivotal in a large variety of biomedical instruments, spanning from electrochemical biosensors to photodetectors for visible and gamma radiation. In this tutorial, the common electronic design challenges and guidelines will be discussed, for circuits detecting charge and current, with special focus on front-end CMOS ASICs. Key aspects of the signal readout chain will be discussed spanning from the front-end to the back-end processing for charge, current and impedance sensing. Applicative examples will focus on diagnostics, both from the (apparently opposite) perspectives of electrochemical nano-biosensors, leveraging molecular affinity (miniaturized and integrated with lab-on-chip microfluidics), monitoring single cells, as well as up to hospital-based scanners for multi-modal medical imaging.
Keywords: Impedance, low-noise, analog electronics, charge detection, lab-on-chip, bio-sensors.