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Autonomous systems are nowadays having an undisputed pervasiveness in the modern society. Autonomous driving cars as well as applications of service robots (e.g. cleaning robots, companion robots, intelligent healthcare solutions, tour guided systems) are becoming more and more popular and a general acceptance is now developing around such systems in the modern societies. Nonetheless, one of the major problems in building such applications relies on the capability of autonomous systems to understand their surroundings and then plan proper counteractions. The most popular solutions, which are gaining more and more attention, rely on artificial intelligence and deep learning as a means to understand the structured and complex natural environment. Nonetheless, besides the importance of such complex tools, classical concept of metrology, such as uncertainty and precision, are still unavoidable to a clear and effective application of modern autonomous systems applications.
In this tutorial, some measurement concepts will be revised in light of the autonomous systems domain. In particular, we will cover the main concepts of the statistical approach to measurements that will then be applied to: