Expert Series

Non-invasive Monitoring of Drugs Bioavailability by Tissue Impedance Measurement

Pasquale Arpaia, Nicola Moccaldi



Topical administration and transdermal delivery are advantageous in comparison with systemic administration routes because complications as first-pass metabolism, toxicity, and side effects are attenuated for the patient. Their effectiveness is evaluated by numerous studies in laboratory. However, performance outside of a laboratory, in the context of daily clinical application, is less investigated. 

After an introduction on EIS for prosthesis osseointegration diagnostics in audiology and Artificial Intelligence for model definition in EIS, this tutorial presents a measurement methods (in aesthetic medicine) to evaluate the amount of a substance delivered into a tissue . A second measurement method for indirectly assessing the insulin bioavailability is discussed. The leakage of a given amount of insulin produces a corresponding variation in the measured equivalent impedance in the administration volume.


Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, drug bioavailability assessment,  transdermal delivery, personalized medicine, 

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Pasquale Arpaia

University of Napoli Federico II

Nicola Moccaldi

University of Naples Federico II